In everyday life, we often find tools/objects around that are made of metal elements. If you pay attention, starting from electrical switches, vehicles, jewelry, household appliances, to the construction of high-rise buildings, the use of this element is not spared. Then, what is metal and what are its types?
Metals is an impermeable mineral, it can be a conductor of heat and electric current. Generally, metal can also be hammered or permanently pressed until it deforms without breaking or cracking and is also fusible (can be melted).
There are several types of metal that are important for us to know and become the basic material for tools/items needed by everyday people, including:
Steel or so-called black iron is generally used as the main component in machines, car frames, ships, trains, tools, weapons, building frames, and so on. Steel is an alloy between iron (Fe) as the main material and carbon (C).
In addition, other mixtures are manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, oxygen, nitrogen, and aluminum. To improve the quality of this type of steel, other metal elements such as nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium and niobium can be added.
Carbon which is also contained in the alloy serves as a hardening agent and also in maintaining or preventing the shift of atoms by increasing their tensile strength. This is because carbon can fill the empty space between the iron atoms in the metallic bond so that it is denser and harder.
Mild Steel (Galvanum)
Mild steel or what is called galvanum is a type of thin steel metal with a metal alloy layer content of 55% aluminum (Al), 43% zinc (Zn), and 1.6% silicon (Si). This type of metal is said to be environmentally friendly which has a very high resistance and is of course anti-rust.
Bronze is a type of mixed metal which contains copper as a basic material or component with other types of metal such as tin (Sn). In general, bronze contains 88% copper while 12% is tin.
Bronze can be said to be a stronger element when compared to copper metal and is used in industrial purposes. The use of bronze itself is often found in the windmills of ships and other parts, in the manufacture of inscriptions, gongs and gamelan instruments, and is used to make trophies or medals.
Brass is a combination of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). The variety of ratios results in variations in the characteristics of this brass metal, but basically copper metal has a ratio of 60-90% of the total mass.
The advantage of brass is that it is able to remove or kill microorganisms or bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a few minutes to several hours after sticking.
This type of brass metal will work to kill bacteria by destroying the structure of the bacterial cell membrane, disrupting the ion balance in bacteria, disrupting osmotic pressure, and forming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) compounds on the bacterial membrane.